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Acrobatic flight

The Acrobatics can be defined as the capacity to accurately maneuver an airship in the three-dimensional space where maneuvers and pirouettes with an airship are realised.

The majority of the acrobatic maneuvers includes the rotation of equipment on their longitudinal axis (movement known as warping), their transverse axis (movement known as pitching or its vertical axis (movement known as wink). The acrobatic maneuvers are realised normally connected, which requires a greater level of domain on the part of the pilot but it enormously increases the spectacle of an acrobatic demonstration.

 

The Acrobatics suppose to confront risks that do not appear in other aerial sports. Nevertheless, as in any other activity, it depends on safe or the dangerous thing that the own pilot wants to do it. Since the risk to run is high, it is important to form in a school with specialized professors and airplanes
preparations for the maneuvers to realise. It is necessary that the pilot always maintains a prudential distance with the ground and that flies within its own capacities.

A good physical form requires so much as mental control. The pilot must be able to resist high accelerations, to maintain his direction in the space during the maneuvers, to execute the acrobatic maneuvers accurately and to control at any moment the speed and altitude of his airplane, as well as to remain within the competition bucket.

To fly, for example, mouth down frequently usually disorients pilot Nobel. Other maneuvers can be so amazing that the pilot must realise the opposite whom to him request their senses, especially the one of the balance. It is for that reason that the Acrobatic Flight requires great doses of training combined with absolute neatness in the safety measures to follow. In agreement practices this sport, the body is adapted better to the maneuvers. Perhaps the Acrobatics are one of the most difficult and complex sports but that, in compensation, it brings enormous experiences.

History

During the first years of aviation, some pilots used their airplanes to entertain the public in aerial exhibitions. The realised maneuvers, chosen by their beauty or danger, did not have major intention that the one to impress the spectators. In the United States the exhibitions were still a pastime, in the old continent began to be a competition sport. In 1934, they organize in Paris the first World-wide Championships of Acrobatics, with nine representatives of six countries, all of them European, in the presence of more than 150,000 spectators. The competition lasted two days. In the first day, the participants had realise an obligatory program of eight minutes of duration, whereas in the second day she settled down eight minutes of free program. The result was ominous. Two pilots died during the test and a third party was seriously wounded. Even so, the competition continued and the secured liking was so, that in 1936 the aerobatics were sport of demonstration in the Olympic Games of Berlin.

The Acrobatics as it deports cross the Atlantic and, in the United States, the Freddie Lund Trophy settles down to promote the precision acrobatics. Nevertheless, the outbreak of World War II and the later Cold War paralyze the international competitions completely. Only in the United Kingdom begins of form timid Trophy Lockheed in 1955, that will be the germ of the World-wide Championship of Acrobatics that will be realised to the other side of the steel curtain, in Bratislava (Czechoslovakia) in 1960.

From 1960, every two years of uninterrupted form except in 1974 have stayed international competitions, due to the crisis of petroleum, and in 1992 when it was cancelled due to the bad meteorological conditionses. From year 2001, the World-wide Championships are celebrated in the uneven years as the 2007. Nevertheless, the European Championships are celebrated in the even years.

Security in Flight

In Acrobatic Flight GS is habitual to reach forces of up to 6. Although a pilot of limitless acrobatics in a competition routine gets to reach 12G and to -7G, although the habitual thing to be between 10G and -6G, in any case very over 4 or 5 GS that a pilot of Formula 1 undergoes.

In an acceleration with GS positive, the blood lies down to go away to the legs, and the brain receives less oxygen contribution. Consequently, disturbances of the vision take place: it is more difficult to coordinate muscles. Generally, between 2 and 7 GS takes place, first of all, the grey out and later the complete loss of vision, when being reduced I oxygenate that it arrives from the retina. Although at any moment one stays brings back to consciousness.

In the GS negative, the blood goes away at the top, feeling the pilot in the first place a congestion. The face is reddened and the blood vessels of the eyes begin to dilate. Some pilots have undergone hemorrhages as much in the eyes as in the skin. The brain can tolerate average negative values of GS. The increase of the sanguineous pressure in neck and chest produces almost always a reduction in the heart rate that can even bring about arrhythmia during the second later ones to the maneuver. In last stay, the stagnation of the blood in the brain can also produce loss of brings back to consciousness. Nevertheless, the effect on the human body depends on each individual.

From the acrobatic point of view, one of the maneuvers that more demand the pilot is vertical eights call. In this maneuver the pilot supports -5,2 forces of GS, whereas few seconds later inferior is in the part holding +5 forces of GS. The variation in 10 10 seconds of GS hardly avoids that the heart adapts to this change and lies down to reduce its rate. This produces a smaller sanguineous contribution to the brain that can get to produce it unconsciousness.

The resistance of the pilot to the accelerations in flight increases with a good physical form and many hours of training.

A safety measure to take, and for that reason less nonfundamental, is the precaution. A maneuver is not due to realise that has not been realised before under the correct supervision. It does not have either to be realised in an airplane that has not flown before, since different airships have different answers from the controls. Hopefully, it is not either possible to realise acrobatic maneuvers on populations or groupings of personnel, as well as in the air traffic control region.

The stunt airplanes normally are classified in two categories: stunt airplanes and airplanes able to realise acrobatic maneuvers. The stunt airplanes, as the Pitts Special, Extra 200 and 300, and the Sukhoi His is designed with the aim of obtaining the best benefits in acrobatic flight. This design entails a loss of general functionality, as tourist capacity (autonomy, lifting capacity, number of passengers) or facility of handling. In a basic level, the airplanes able to realise acrobatic maneuvers can be easy to handle, to have a good tourist capacity while they maintain the capacity to realise acro basic barber's bowl.

 

The acrobatics in formation are realised in groups of up to 16 airplanes normally, although the majority of equipment flies between 4 and 10 airplanes. Many acrobatic equipment comprises of the Armed Forces of the countries, although also there are them fly thanks to sponsoring commercial. The smoke use is common during the demonstrations, to emphasize the realised routines and to add spectacularity to the acrobatic routines, as well as a spectacular decoration of the airplanes. The fighting equipment usually use the colors of the national flag during their activities.

The acrobatic equipment flies in close order in which the airplanes are not to the same height nor exactly below another airplane, to avoid the turbulences produced by the preceding airplanes, gases of the motor etc… but each airplane fly slightly below their immediate previous one, or at the same level.

The maneuvers realised in jet planes have a limited reach, since these airplanes cannot take advantage the gyroscopic effect that produce the helices. In addition, its necessity to fly faster increases to the size of the figures and the time that is the exhibited pilot to high accelerations. The jet planes, normally the military, usually fly in formation which also limits the maneuvers that can realise surely.

The practice of the sport

In Spain, a specific license does not exist that it identifies to a pilot as acrobatic. Although yes it is necessary that the student in force has the license of Private and very recommendable Pilot who has realised more than 100 flight hours. He is advisable to register in a school of Acrobatics, so that personal specialized it teaches to us correctly and it corrects to us.

Several levels of Acrobatics exist to which the student-pilot ascends following his progression. First stage of the learning usually is based on the learning of the administration and control of the energy generated during the flight, that is to say, knowledge to compensate the speed with height vice versa and. The type of used airplane at the outset usually is a basic trainer, as the Cessna C-150 Aerobat, the Decathlon, the Yak-52 or CAP 10.

MODELO

Seats

Power (CB)

Acrobatic capacity +G/- G

Max speed (naked)

Cessna C-150 Aerobat

2
110
+6/-
110

Super Decathlon

2
180
+6/- 4,5
160

Pitts 52A

2
200
+9/- 5
176

Extra 300

2
300
+10/- 10
220

Sukhoi 26

1
360
+12/- 10
243

Later, usually they are realised nonusual maneuvers, as the invested flight, pronounced turns, drills and curls. The classes usually are expensive, in comparison, with a conventional class, nevertheless, is necessary to consider that is necessary to use airplanes of high benefits and that are to be put under intense structural revisions.

A third-party insurance is obligatory for the practice from the Acrobatics having that pays the potential damages that we can cause.

The Competition

Depending essentially on the difficulty of the maneuvers to realise, several categories of competition in Aerobatics exist: Elementary, Sport, Intermediate, Limitless Outpost and. The difference between categories consists of the limitations of the type of figures to do in the programs, of there for example

In Elementary, for example, curls, barrels, drills and angles of 45 are realised
°.

In Sport, the barrels per times are added, whereas in the Intermediate one they are realised thus fast and progressively until when arriving at the absence of limitations.

In the Elementary Category the airplanes have the reinforced wing to support forces of +7/-5 GS, that the pilot must respect during the test. If they exceed these limits, it will be disqualified automatically. In the Category Outpost, the airplanes are limited in power until the 260 CB, except for exceptions. Finally, the Limitless Category allows to fly with any type of airplane certificate for Acrobatics and with the necessary benefits.

Recently, the Aeronautical Federation the International also has including another denominated category Yak-52, in an attempt to make an international match accessible monobrand and to pilots without great costs. Its level of difficulty is major that the Interval being placed near the Advanced one, but designed for the structural limitations of the Yak-52.

During the acrobatic competition, the pilot will realise up to 20 different figures, that they will have to be perfect On guard and forms, independent of meteorology and of the existing wind.

All the maneuvers have to be realised within the call acrobatic box, that is an imaginary bucket of 1,000 ms of side in its plant and whose height will depend on the category where the pilot competes. Lowest they have a minimum altitude more discharge with the purpose of to provide an additional margin with respect to the ground. In all the cases, the automatic disqualification of the participant takes place, if it exceeds half the minimum altitude for his category:

Category

Free program

Peak altitude

Minimal height

Height of disqualification

Elementary
-
1300 meters
300 meters

150 meters

Outpost
if
1100 meters
200 meters

100 meters

Limited
if
1000 meters
100 meters

 

50 meters
In Spain, one of the competitions of more popular Aerobatics is the Triangular Glass of Acrobatic Flight, organized by the Central Acrobatic Club, that is realised in three cities of peninsular geography throughout the year and that reunites to 50 pilots of more than ten countries.

At international level, the World-wide Championships of Acrobatics are organized by the Aeronautical Federation the International the uneven years as of year 2001, whereas the Championship of Europe is celebrated the even years. In both cases, the duration is of 7 to 12 days.
In the 2002, the commander of Iberia Ramón Alonso secured the Championship of Europe de Acrobacia, in addition to have been in numerous occasions Champion of Spain. Whereas in 2006, the Spanish acrobatic equipment formed by Fantoba Beaver, Juan Velarde and Juan Socias are raised with the silver medal of the European Championships that were celebrated that year,

reaching Fantoba the gold medal in the program P3 or Segundo Desconocido. In the world-wide championships of 2007, Ramón Alonso raised itself with the title of Champion of the World, whereas the Spanish equipment of Acrobatics, trained by Vytas Lapenas, obtained the silver medal. Other acrobatic pilots of reputation are Sergio Pía, Anselmo Gámez and Alejandro Maclean, this last one selected as participant pilot in Red Bull Air Races.

 

Acrobatic flight in Helicopters EC-120B- Patrols VANE

 

 

 

 

 
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ico_turismodebisturi Although not fitted within the acrobatic competitions, several acrobatic patrols of international reputation exist in Spain. First of all, the Patrol Eagle formed by pilots of the Spanish manufacture, Air Force who fly airplanes of training C-101. Also VANE, formed by Eurocopter helicopters is necessary to recognize the work of the spectacular Acrobatic Patrol Hummingbird of the Helicopter school of Armilla (Granada). But the one that it has, without doubt, a position nearer the aviator one half is the Acrobatic Patrol Private Jacob 52, founded on 1997 by Tomás Buergo, who in the last years has contributed significantly to approach the Acrobatic Flight the great public. Recently, Fantoba Beaver and Juan Velarde have formed the Patrol Snake, that is called to being one of the groupings of international most successful.
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