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Aerostation - Air balloons - Airship

Air balloon

Globes

Consisting of a great spherical and flexible stock market made of silk or rubber (rubber) waterproofed either another nonporous material adapted in whose interior there is hot air or some light gas the more that the air, the hot air that has tendecia to raise by the difference of density with the air cold, that applied to a globe obtains that this it raises, lowers or it stays.
As they do not have any propellent type, the aerostats “are let take” by the airflows.

The manned globes admit to one or several people who travel in a suspended log.

The manned globes do not take instruments to measure and to register diverse physical phenomena. The first globes filled up of hot air and used to have a burner to be replacing the heat. The modern globes use hydrogen or helium or, in the case of sport hot air globes, air warmed up with a small gas burner. The fuel that is used at the moment for the burners is propane due to its heat of combustion. The globe this together with the basket by stainless steel cables. or him any type of body can “be tied”, as for example a sensor.

 

The most common uses of the Air balloon are: Sport, Commercials, tourist and playful, Meteorology, Distrutar the landscape, Fairs. etc.

1783 the first balloon flight is realised with human crew. Constructed by the French brothers Joseph and Etienne Montgolfier, it elevated to his passengers to 91 ms on the ground.

In 1931 it is when the oxygen mask is invented and the man begins to raise quickly towards the space.  In some years hardly quadruple the height record

The 21 of March of 1999 Swiss Bertrand Piccard, along with the Briton Brian Jones on board gives to the return to the world del air balloon Breitling Orbiter III without realising scales, crossing 46,759 kilometers in 19 days, 21 hours and 55 minutes. This flight supposed a landmark in the history of aviation: it broke seven records of the world, and nowadays, it continues being the flight of greater whole range.

The Breitling Orbiter III, whose cabin was of 5.4 ms by 2.2 ms, was equipped with solar batteries, transportable radars that they identified to the ship with the control of air traffic of each country, systems of direction by VHF satellite and radios.

At the moment it is involved, along with also Swiss André Borschberg, in the denominated project “Solar Impulse” to construct the first manned airplane moved by the solar energy.

The excellent climatic conditions of Spain cause that totality of its territory can be flown actually in globe (excepting, logically, the restricted areas, as they can be the areas of security of the airports).

Basic material

Basic material. Globe, transport for this, pursuit and rescue. The globe consists of one velita of nylon fiber, limited 400 flight hours by the wearing down that suffers.

The candle is formed by pieces sewn to each other with vertical and horizontal tapes of load. The low part but of the candle is non-flammable to be able to hold the high temperatures.

The burners that take globes are some metallic coils, fed by gas cylinders of liquid propane of 40 liters pressurized. Each gas cylinder lasts approximately 40 minutes, according to its use. The flash that produces the flame of the burner can get to reach the five meters of height; during the flight one stays ignited a small pilot flame that increases when the valve is driven. warming up the air of the globe

The basket this constructed with overwhelm brhelp by hand, with a wood base reforazada and reinforced all this with steel cables.

The ventilator is only used To inflate the earth globe. Ignition remains impelling air to the interior of the candle, until this one has an suitable consistency to begin to warm up the air and to put the On guard vertical globe. Then, it begins to work the burner.

The flight and inflation maneuvers become between several people. In addition to assuring a correct streching the fabric, it is necessary to unload all the material and to realise the pursuit by earth. Usually it is enough with a group of three or four people, although this one can increase in proportion to the size of the globe or to the trajectory of the flight.

Equipment, clothes of coat, gloves, protection for the skin and glasses, Altimeter., Variimetro (average measures the vertical speed), Thermometer., Compass, Radio, Extinguisher: it is obligatory.

The practice of the sport

In Spain all person interested in being pilot in command of a globe must be 16 years old, pass a medical examination, and a test of knowledge that will allow him to obtain the license. A minimum of 16 flight hours is required to secure the license for private pilot and more than 100 hours to secure special authorization to exert in the commercial scope.

Competition

The category reigns of the competition with globe is the Flight of Precision, that consists of flying towards a morning call located to several kilometers of distance of the lift-off point. In order to state that indeed the morning call has been flown over, the pilot must throw a witness more close possible of the morning call. For it, it is necessary that the pilot makes an intelligent use of winds of the zone and takes a oriented trajectory to the morning call.

The competitions with globes are divided in two fundamental classes:

Class A: It corresponds to free globes and that is divided as well in five subclasses with 15 categories each of them, following the size in m3 of the globe:

AA: globes without heater, fillings of gas lighter than the air and without pressurization.
AX: globes with air heater.
A.M.: globes that combine gas lighter than the air and heater, but without pressurization.
AS: globes with gas and sufficient pressurization.
AT: any other modality.

Class B: It corresponds to globes where it leaves from the lift force exerts it a motor. It is divided as well in four subclasses with 10 categories following the size of the globe:

IT GOES: globes with a 80% of sustenation produced by a gas lighter than the air and not including in category BR.
BX: globes where the sustenation is only obtained warming up air.
BR: globes of up to 80% of sustenation produced by a gas lighter than the air but with rigid structure.
BT: any other globe type, including which they have more of 20% of the sustenation generated by a motor.

Each one of the world-wide own indicated categories previously own their record of height, speed, dwell time in flight or minor time around the world.

CATEGORY MINIMUM RANGE

MINIMUM DURATION

MINIMUM HEIGHT DISTANCE TO THE CHOSEN LANDING POINT
C of Silver 100 km. 3 hours 3,000 meters < 10 meters
Gold C 300 km. 6 hours 6,000 meters < 1 meters
3 Diamantes 500 km. 24 hours 9,000 meters  

The Aeronautical Federation the International is the official organism that is in charge to validate and to certify the record that takes place in each category, as well as to organize the general classification of pilots.

 


Captive flight

Another called modality of captive flight exists, the globe remains subject at any moment to earth, with the only capacity to ascend and to descend. This type of flight represents an excellent advertising platform. The captive globes, served great in World War I, used as observatory, especially as help to the artillery, or simply as flying barriers and obstacles to aviation.

 


Dirigible or Zeppeling

dirigible_zeppelin

The airships were developed from the free globe, is equipment lighter than the air with a full careening of a gas able to elevate it, self-propelled and with maneuverability to be governed as an airship, and one or more gondolas for the crew. The careening always contains helium, although before hydrogen was used, and is extended or fusiform to reduce the resistance to the air. The propulsion device usually has one or several motors and helices. Can be loosen ballast, usually is sand or water, to increase the aviation lift and to release gas to reduce it. Another possibility is to inflate or to deflate the air chambers, calls balonets, that there is within the main gas careening: of this form the global density of the airship is altered. In order to direct equipment, the pilot uses one or several articulated rudders in vertical; in order to raise or to descend, he uses one or several rudders of articulated height or depth in horizontal.

There are three classes of airships: flexible airship, generally of small size, in which the form of the careening is conserved thanks to the pressure of the gas; semi-rigid airship, in which the form stays by the pressure of the gas and a longitudinal keel, rigid airship, whose form is determined by a rigid structure.

The first airship that was able to fly was the one of the engineer and French inventor Henri Giffard, who in 1852 constructed to a nonrigid careening in the form of cigarette and flood of gas, with a length of 44 ms, guided by a screw propeller fed by a steam motor with a power of 2.2 KW. 10 km/h flew over Paris at a speed of about. The airship of Giffard only could fly with little wind or without wind. The first airship that managed to return to its starting point with a slight wind was the France, developed in 1884 by the French inventors Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs. It was impelled by an electrical propellent

Commercial the aerial first voyages with passage were realised by the zeppelins Deutschland and Sachesen in 1913.

At the moment it is used them in a series of secondary applications, especially publicity. In the EE.UU., still they use airships as radar stations.


 

Connections:

Ultramagic globes www.ultramagic.com
Aerodifusión globes www.aerodifusion.es
Association Pilots of Aerostation www.aerostacion.com
Listing of Clubs of Aerostation www.hotairballooning.com/clubs.php
British club of Aerostation www.bbac.org/

 

 

 

 

 
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