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Ultralight, or “ultralight”

ultaligero

The ultralight one is small sport airplanes are between the free flight (wing delta) and the flight with motor (small planes)
They are of little provided weight and little consumption of motor that allow to take off from the ground and with a good autonomy.
Aviation ultralight comes being exactly just like traditional, with difference of which this tries to simplify everything what can, beginning by the weight of the airship and the learning, control, degrees and licenses are but reasonable.
Skis and floaters are also used so that they can land and take off in any surface.

The flights are realised generally to a height of 150 to 200 meters although the legislation it allows you to reach the 300, the ultralight one takes a built-in parachute that is opened in 0,4 seconds and has effectiveness from the 50 meters of height.

In Spain, so that an airship can be considered as ultralight, it must satisfy several requirements. First it is that are motopropulsadas airships, where as much the takeoff as the landing average physicists on the part of the pilot or the occupants are realised without as happens, for example, in the paramotor or the wing delta. In addition, their calibrated speed of loss in landing configuration is inferior to 65 km/h. And, finally, that the authorized maximum weight is inferior to 300 kg for terrestrial airships single-seater.

 

In the case of hydroplanes or amphibious airplanes, it is allowed to surpass the previous weight until in 30 kg being able to accommodate the floaters as much as any structural reinforcement that is necessary.

For terrestrial airships two-seater, the maximum weight increases until the 450 kg or 495 kg in the case of hydroplanes. If an airplane in particular can operate as landplane or hydroplane, then when it operates in one or the other modality it will have to adjust to the weights of his corresponding category. In some European countries, as it is the case of France or Germany, it is allowed in addition to exceed the previous weights in an amount that goes up to around the 15 kg if the ultralight one incorporates a parachute in emergency.

The Flight in Ultralight is realised in uncontrolled areas, below the 300 ms on the level of the ground and only between the dawn and the decline in favorable atmospheric conditions. Generally, these airships do not have to fill up a flight planning nor to put themselves in touch with a control tower. Under the norms of visual flight (TO SEE), is the own pilot the person in charge at any moment to maintain the suitable separation with other airships, avoiding to fly over urban zones, controlled conglomerations of people or zones. The advantage of ultralight aviation is that it does not need so many permissions to operate but, in return, more is restricted in its operation.

In the case of the Light aviation, formed by airplanes up to 1,500 kg of weight to the takeoff, the operation in airports with flight control is allowed. In this case, the pilot must give to his flight planning to the control tower, detailing the route, the main crossing sites, the destiny and the estimated time of arrival, at least 30 minutes before the flight. Also he must include the amount of fuel available for, the flight, as well as one or several alternative airports, where some serious failure or unforeseen circumstance will go to the airship in case of. The light airplanes also use help to navigation more sophisticated than the ultralight ones, since they are preparations to realise flights of greater distance.

Ultralight airplanes

 

Characteristics

Category A
Landplanes, aquatic or amphibious that they do not have more than two places for occupants, and the speed calibrated of lost in landing configuration is not superior to 65 km/h. and whose authorized maximum mass in the takeoff is not superior a:

1. - 300 kg for landplanes single-seaters.
2. - 450 kg for landplanes twos-seater.
3. - 330 kg for amphibious hydroplanes or airplanes single-seaters.
4. - 495 kg for amphibious hydroplanes or airplanes twos-seater.

Category B
Giroaviones terrestrial, aquatic or amphibious that they do not have more than two places for occupants, and whose authorized maximum mass to the takeoff is not superior a:

1. - 300 kg for terrestrial giroaviones single-seaters.
2. - 450 kg for terrestrial giroaviones twos-seater.
3. - 330 kg for aquatic giroaviones or amphibious single-seaters.
4. - 495 kg for aquatic giroaviones or amphibious twos-seater.

The nonmotorised ones are not considered ultralight aerodyne (gliders), the aerostats, nor the motorised airships or no, for whose ground it is necessary the direct contest of physical effort f of any occupant, acting this one replacing some structural element, such as the wings delta, the motorised parachutes, the aerostats with motorised logs, as well as any other I devise that it needs such effort for the takeoff or the landing.

 

Types


Tube and fabric:
The structure of ultralight this at sight one and is of aeronautical and entelado aluminum tube in the sustenation surfaces. With speed of flight and low landing, they are very safe in case of stop of motor, being able, in addition, to land in very short spaces. They have little autonomy and they can be single-seaters or Twos-seater.

Maximum weight to the takeoff: 290 - 320 kg.
Landing distance: 100 - 150 M.s
Cruise speed 90 - 100 km/h.
Speed of landing: 35 - 45 km/h.
Motorization: 50 two-stroke engines from 30 to CB.
Autonomy: Usually they take small deposits of 35 ls which less than confers an autonomy to them of two hours, that is to say, its flight is habitually local. Normally the version exists single-seater and the two-seater.

They are characterized exclusively by his seen structure of aeronautical and entelado aluminum tube of the empennage and sustenation surfaces, presenting in some cases a small fairing.
Their speed of flight and its speed of landing are very slow, which equips to him with an important security in case of stop of motor, being able to land in very short spaces. Its little autonomy limits to him domestic flights, which causes that the lands by where flies habitual and are known by the pilots.

Pendular:

They arise at the end of the Seventies as a version outpost from the wing delta to which a car or trike is had to him including, where one or two passengers occupies the front zone, whereas the motor usually is placed at the rear. Flight characteristics similar to previous of Tube and the fabric have some.

Ultralight the pendular ones usually are of two axes, that is to say, that exists a flight control surface to regulate the pitching, that allow to raise and to lower, and another one of yaw, that it allows to turn to left or right. Nevertheless, they lack lateral control, reason why to be able to turn, it is necessary to coordinate the yaw with the warping. The turn in this type of airplanes secures by means of the change in the position of the center of gravity, following the same technique that developed for the Wing the Delta

Maximum weight to the takeoff: 330 - 390 kg.
Landing distance: 50 - 150 M.s
Cruise speed 90 - 120 km/h.
Speed of landing: 45 - 55 km/h.
Weathering: two and four 80 times from 45 to CB.
Autonomy: 3 - 4 hours.

Normally the version exists single-seater and the two-seater.

They derive from the free flight, and they are characterized for being a wing motorised delta of free flight with a triangular car (trike) on which are located the crew.
Of the same form that the previous ones, its slow speed of landing makes them be able to take earth in short tracks, providing that degree to them of security indicated above. Normally the flight is local although the advanced models more can make majors distances.

Autogyros:

They are a evolution of the designs of the autogyros Of the Cierva. They are very safe equipment.

Maximum weight to the takeoff: 410 - 450 kg.
Landing distance: 5 - 50 M.s
Cruise speed 90 - 140 km/h.
Speed of landing: 5 - 35 km/h.
Motorization: Motors of two and four 110 times from 65 to CB.
Autonomy: 3 - 4 hours.

Normally the version exists single-seater and the two-seater. They arise from the idea of Of the Cierva avoiding the loss of lift of airplanes, eliminating therefore one of the accident causes. It means that they are one of aerodyne the more insurances than they exist, since with that premise they are designed.

2ª Generation:

Ultralight more they are advanced than the previous ones and with an aspect that remembers to the light airplanes, or small planes, conventional. Usually they are fairings and they incorporate a closed cabin, that protects to the pilot of the majors secured speeds of flight.

They incorporate motors among 50 and 80 normally power CB, being the cruise speed below the 150 km/h. Its greater autonomy, among three and four hours, allows them to realise small excursions with more extensive routes.

Product of the evolution of those of tube and fabric totally is careened and better benefits which allows to obtain a greater distance in its flights.

Maximum weight to the takeoff: 410 - 450 kg.
Landing distance: 100 - 200 M.s
Cruise speed 110 - 140 km/h.
Speed of landing: 45 - 55 km/h.
Motorization: two and four 80 times from 50 to CB.
Autonomy: 3 - 4 hours.

From the evolution of the tube and fabric, they arise one second generation of ULM totally careened and closed, with better benefits than the tube and fabric, which allows flights to greater distance.

3ª Generation:

La Tercera Generation already owns benefits, autonomy and equipment similar to the conventional light airplanes.
The same concept of tube and fabric with new materials, as composite or fibers of carbon, to secure better benefits: autonomy up to 1,200 km, cruise speed of 190 km/h., and height on watch of flight of up to 4,500 M.s being by these benefits very appreciated by the sport pilots. These two last models can own in emergency of a ballistic parachute that has a rocket that stretches the parachute much allowing an unfolding m's r'pido

For the acquisition of one of these talents it is possible to be chosen between or the preparations for the flight or kits of assembly available according to the models that can be of a kit assembled that has preconstructed parts and it is possible to be finished in just a short time or kits of materials that they have to be assembled by the interested one that it can go enters 6 and 24 months for the accomplishment of the ultralight one and its homologation and matriculation.

Maximum weight to the takeoff: 450 kg.
Landing distance: 120 - 250 M.s
Cruise speed 160 - 220 km/h.
Speed of landing: 65 - 85 km/h.
Motor: four times of 80 - 120 CB
Autonomy: 4 - 6 hours.

two-seater

With the arrival of the new materials, it appears the third generation of ultralight, realised in composites and fibers of carbon, which does ultralight but with benefits similar to the light small planes. Its autonomy (up to 1,200 km), its cruise speed (on the 200 km/h) and its ceiling on watch (4,500 ms), makes ideals for the flight of long distances to cost of ultralight, reason why they begin to be the favourites by the sport pilots, so that shortly they will be most numerous of all the sport aviation.

Regulation

Accredited and registered vehicle.
The user must obtain a meat of crew member sent by the Main directorate of Civil Aviation.
The flight would only be realised by the Spanish airspace.
The flight must be realised in favorable atmospheric conditions.
Flights do not have to be realised on air traffic control regions, restricted, prohibited, on activated danger areas, urban zones and agglomerations of people.

Licenses

Education for the obtaining of the membership card and license of Pilot of Ultralight can begin as of the sixteen years, being realised the course in a Center of Flight of Ultralight with School as Student-Pilot.
For the expedition of the membership card and license of Ultralight Pilot of the aspiring it must have turned the eighteen years.
- Minimum age of eighteen years.
- Medical certification of medical fitness for the flight.
- To demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the type of vehicle, limitations and applicable legislation to be able to fly in conditions of security. (To pass a theoretical examination and a practitioner).

The flight training understands, as minimum, ten flight hours in ultralight. Total saying of ten hours will only include three of flight, during which twenty takeoffs and landings will take place not less than and a passage flight, with a minimum duration of 30 minutes and one takes outside the field in which instruction has been received.

The course for the obtaining of the membership card of Pilot of Ultralight will consist of the theoretical lessons and training flights of at least 10h. The 1,200 prices go up to around €.

Regulation, requirements and conditions:

Membership card of crew member of the Main directorate of Civil Aviation. flight in Spanish airspace.
- That the flight is realised according to the rules VFR on visibility and distance of clouds, having been prohibited the flights in marginal conditions of turbulence or.
Peak altitude of flight is not superior to 300 ms on the ground.
Not to fly on air traffic control regions, restricted, prohibited, on activated danger areas, urban zones and agglomerations of people.
For takeoff, flight and landing and minimums of security meet the conditions that prescribed settle down.

 

 

 

 

 
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