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Flight with Motor

two-seater

The Flight with Motor, or is in an ultralight one or in a light airplane, it allows to move by him without preoccupations as far as search of upward currents.

The Flight with Motor begins its history officially the 17 of December of 1903, when the Wright brothers obtain realise a controlled flight in self-propelled equipment heavier than the air.

In France the brothers Gabriel and Charles Voisin would be the unique ones in impelling the aeronautical potential of the old continent. In 1905, they found the first aircraft factory on Billancourt, from which they produced his own models. That same year, Jesús Fernández Duro, grandson of the founder of the Asturian metallurgy, the Real Aeroclub of Spain, RACE creates, with the purpose of training civil pilots, supported by Pedro Vives. Also that year the Aeronautical Federation is based the International. - FAI.

 

In 1909, Juan Oliver flies in Paternal (Valencia) the first airplane designed and constructed in Spain of the hand of Gaspar Brunet.

In 1911, the first airport of Spain is inaugurated: Four Winds. Aviation this fashionable one, but only for a wealthy minority.

World War I supposes a spectacular advance in the development of airplanes, as well as in its pilotage in flight. It also supposed the formation of multitude of pilots and the construction of hundreds of airships that were without a market after the conflict. At the end of 1918, the airplanes were enormously cheap, thanks to the great surplus of the war. The aeronautics industry underwent a strong crisis since, customary as it were to the manufacture in mass, it was with the absence of demand of the postwar period, which supposed the closing by bankruptcy of several constructors.

The pilots decide to buy military airplanes surpluses and, especially in the United States, they begin to realise aerial exhibitions and races that attract the attention of the great public. The designers concentrate themselves in the development of very quick airplanes and that flies low, so that they can well be seen by the great public.

The speed record follows one another continuously. In 1909, the maximum reached speed is of 77 km/h. In 1920, the French pilot Sadi Lecointe surpasses the 275 km/h to the controls of a Nieuport. Towards 1928, Italian Mario Benardi reaches the 512 km/h in a Macchi M.52 and only three years later, Supermarine S.6B reaches the 652 km/h. FritzWendel would establish the maximum brand in 1939 when obtaining 752 km/h: the greater speed secured with a reciprocating engine.

The reliability of the motors also improvement significantly, which allows to fly to majors distances. In 1922, James Doolittie becomes the first aviator in crossing, in 24 hours, of coast to coast the United States. But the one would be Charles Lindbergh that would have major social repercussion when crossing the Atlantic Ocean of the West to This in 1927. Su Ryan NYP with 2,000 liters of fuel and 223 motor of CB would cross 5,760 km that separate New York of Paris.

In 1933, the French Henri Mignet on sale put an airplane that was sold in kit. Nevertheless, due to the high rate of accidents that registered, they finished being prohibited by the French government.

Between 1927 and 1937, three men would found the companies that would dominate the sector of the light aviation in later years; Clyde Cessna, Walter Beech and Bill Pipor,

In 1934, the greater aerial race was organized than the world had seen until then: the trip from London to Melbourne (Australia). The route supposed to realise more than 18,100 km, to cross 19 countries and seven seas. Only 20 participants arrived at the line of goal. Winner, a De Havilland DH88 Comet, realised the passage in two days and almost five hours, but without majors mishaps.

Towards 1977, the fans of the old continent concentrate themselves essentially in the development of wings deltas motorised, giving rise, in 1979, to “trike” or cart where the pilot feels. The invention of the French Roland Magallón increases the stability in and safely economic flight, adding for it a hybrid control of the Wing Delta. Meanwhile, the North Americans invest in the development of ultralight with fixed, similar wings in form to the light airplanes, and including control on the three axes: pitching, warping and yaw.

 

Control panel

The new ones ultralight they are little by little gaining reliability, security in flight and begin to imitate the feats of general aviation. In 1978, Dave Cook crosses the English Channel and lands closely together of where he did BIériot 69 years before. He spends 11 hours and 15 minutes, much more that the 37 minutes of BIériot, but power CB does with 15. In 1987, Eve Jackson flies from London to Sydney in a Shadow. Four years later, trike repeats the same feat. Finally, in 1989, Dave Garrison completes the first return to the world in ultralight Pegasus Q462, with the support of the Royal Navy who allows him to land in one of its aircraft carriers.

In spite of all these profits, the aeronautical authorities see with distrust the appearance of these ultralight airships and begin to regulate them. In the United Kingdom, the CAÁ establishes in 1978 that all airship of more than 70 kg of weight needs a license to fly.

In 1982, a year before the manufacturer was born from Rotax motors, the prohibition rises in Spain to fly ultralight airplanes, appearing the first important regulation that it regulates the sector. The Nineties see a progressive relaxation of the regulation. In Australia, for example, the limit of height of 300 rises 500 feet, at the same time as weights of up to 450 kg are allowed the takeoff.
In 1996, the JAA proposes the category of Ultralight Aircraft, ULA, that allows maximum weights to the takeoff of up to 300 kg for airships with a passenger and up to 450 kg in the case of two. The stall speed of these airships must be inferior to the 65 km/h.

Since then, the reforms in the requirements of certification of the ultralight airplanes are in continuous movement, in an attempt of the authorities certifiers to adapt to the continuous evolution and expansion of this sector of aviation.

ZGZ_Vuelo_con_motor

The practice of the sport

It is important that if acquires an ultralight one of second hand realises an inspection in a specialized factory, with the purpose of to avoid problems in flight. He remembers that an airplane is not as a car, and in case of stop of motor in flight will be in emergency you in a situation.

As he happens to the automotion driver's license, to be able to fly ultralight or a light airplane in Spain it is necessary to be adult, to have passed a medical test and to pass a theoretical examination and another practitioner before owning the crew member membership card who sends the Main directorate of Civil Aviation. Although the requirements are different to fly ultralight and a light airplane. Unlike the driver's license, the pilot must be in possession of two documents: the title and the license of pilot. First it has permanent character and it assures that the theoretical tests have been surpassed and practical initials. The license, on the other hand, assures the continuity in the time those knowledge and, therefore, it demands the accomplishment of a minimum number of flight hours before power to be renewed.

The theoretical agenda of the pilot of ultralight includes some normally basic knowledge of mechanics, navigation and aerodynamics that allow the future know pilot the machine that is going to handle and can begin to study with 16 years. In the case of the light airplane, the theoretical knowledge that are demanded are majors.

The troop trials alone demands to have realised at least seven flight hours with a qualified instructor and a minimum of three hours. In those flight hours, they will have had to realise a minimum of 20 landings and takeoffs and a flight of passage of at least 30 minutes of duration with landing in another landing ground different from which has realised its instruction.

Also, the student will have to begin with to pass a consisting of practical examination a brief flight to esteem around the aerodrome.

Once obtained the membership card of Pilot of Ultralight, any flight in ultralight has to be exclusively realised within the Spanish airspace and with some meteorological minimal conditions that allow to be able to realise a visual flight using references located in earth.

The flight altitude cannot be, under any concept, over the 300 ms on the level of the ground, specifically being prohibited the overflying of urban zones or the agglomerations of people. The flight in those air traffic control regions is not allowed either, for example the environs of an international airport.

In order to secure the pilot license, it is necessary to pass a theoretical-practical examination.

The flight license has a validity that depends as much on the renovation of the medical certificate, as of the fulfillment of three flights and three flight hours in the last 12 months. For smaller pilots of 40 years, the license renews every two years, whereas from that age it is realised annually. The medical certificate also has a validity that depends on the age, and it is possible to be reduced until the six months.

Ln the case of the deprived pilot, flyable light airplanes up to 1,500 kg of weight, is due to realise a minimum of 40 flight hours, of which five can be of simulator. Also, it is necessary to only realise 10 flight and flight hours alone that a minimum range of 270 km with taking and takeoff in at least two aerodromes includes.

Once secured the license of initial flight, its renovation demands to return to in the last pass the medical examination and the accomplishment of at least nine flight hours 12 months. Like in the ultralight ones, the medical examination must be realised with a frequency that depends on the age of the pilot.

When being the ultralight flight in outside the European standards UNIT OF CAPACITANCE, the license of Deprived, flyable Pilot light airplanes without profit spirit, is not confirmed completely to fly ultralight. If the new student-pilot has his license of Private Pilot in force, the theory is confirmed and five flight hours in ultralight are only necessary, before realising the troop trials of flight.

Sport competitions

 

Flight of Precision

The Flight of Precision is equivalent to the races of direction of the athletes, but in a light or ultralight airplane with a minimum autonomy of three hours, according to the Aeronautical Federation the International. Following the competition, another autonomy or a minimum speed in the participant airplanes in the test can be demanded.

The pilot must only fly and using only basic instruments and visual references for the navigation or also known as flight esteem. The competition includes three groups of activities or phases, that will be evaluated by a jury who will award penalty points each error. At the end of the test, the pilot whom there is accumulated less penalty will be the winner.

First stage of the test is the one of planning of the flight and navigation.
The second phase supposes to take to the practice the planned route. Throughout the route, the organization will have installed a maximum of 15 terrestrial brands

Flight of Rally or Aerial Returns

The flights of Rally are similar in rules and concept to the flights of precision previously described, only that the crew extends one second person who is in charge of navigation. Sometimes, the organization includes on damaged who determines a new objective to fly over, once the competitors have located to a beacon or intermediate point in the test. The possibilities multiple and are varied, following the imagination of the organizers.

Aerial races

In this competition, five categories exist but they emphasize by his popularity Limitless and the category Formula One. In first of them, the participants usually fly airplanes normally hunts of World War II and reach speeds that surpass the 700 km/h. The category of Formula One corresponds, nevertheless, to airplanes equipped with a motor Continental 0-200, the same that incorporates the Cessna C-150 100 CB. The airplanes must have 250 kg of weight and one determined wing area at least to guarantee some similar benefits in flight.

Gran Prix Aerial

Modality that is being tried to foment from different organizations from international level. In addition to the classic circuit of competition, other tests as have been added they are those of the bombing of an objective or the combat between two pilots.

 

 

 

 

 
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