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Gliding

flight without

Gliding (also known as flight candle), is an aerial sport, that consists of piloting a sailboat or glider to cross distances and to rise without more help than the movements of the air masses in the atmosphere. When the conditions are sufficiently good, the experience pilots can remain in the air during hours flying and to fly hundreds of kilometers before returning to their airfields, sometimes flights are made of more 1,000 kilometers.

The first gliders, wood facts and weave, were developed by the German inventor Otto Lilienthal in the decade of 1890 and later were improved by the Americans Orville and Wilbur Wright. Later modifications of the design have allowed that the modern aerodynamic gliders are made with fiber glass, with thin wings of 15 20 ms. The gliders go equipped with aileron, elevator, air brake and flap that allows to increase the descent velocity. The reference instruments are similar to those of the airplanes with motor: pedals to govern the control, rudder to handle the ailerons, airspeed indicator of the air, altimeter, compass, indicator of horizon and variometer, to indicate the changes of altitude. Also they can take oxygen and radio equipment.

gliding glider

In the beginnings of the sport, the gliders were towed by a car or a machine that coiled a cable at a high speed; today, normally they are towed by airplanes with motor until an altitude between 600 and 900 ms on the ground. The main advantage of the launching from a capstan is its smaller cost, but the drop altitude is generally lower than aerotow, reason why the flights are shorter unless the pilot can make quickly contact with a source of elevator within some minutes loosen the cable.

From II the World war gliding has become very popular. The sport began in Germany around 1910. The Championship of the World is the high level in the sport. Organizations of gliding celebrate competitions frequently and every two years international tests organized by the Aeronautical Federation are celebrated the International, that grants decorations by different degrees from profits in distance, altitude and duration of flight.
The longest distance in flight than has been registered is the obtained one in 1972 by the German pilot Hans Werner Grosse, 1,460, 8 km.
The altitude record, with 14,938 ms, fixed it to 1986 the American Robert Harris.

 

Gliding, has been gotten up in many countries and at the moment it has more than 116,000 pilots of active gliders, plus an indetermine number of military cadets. It does not matter if the countries are flat or mountainous, I warm up or temperings, since it can fly gliders in the majority of places.

The pilots of gliders also compete in championships. The winner is fastest, or, if the climatic conditions are bad, most distant around the course. Getting to cross up to 1,000 kilometers, speeds of 120 km/h are habitual.

In the modality of Acrobatics. In this type of competition, the pilots fly a program of maneuvers (as the invested flight, bow, he throws, and several combinations). Each maneuver has a called classification “K-Factor”. The maximum points occur for the maneuver better realised, otherwise, points discount. The winner is the pilot with more points.

 

Ascending air sources:

Thermal (current hot air ascendants, that form in the ground through heating of the surface by the sunlight. Typical places to find the thermal ones are plus the cities, just plows wagon fields and asphalt, but the thermal ones are often difficult to associate with any function on the land. Sometimes the thermal ones are caused by exhaust gases of power plants or fires.)

Slope flight (that is where the wind blows against the face of a hill and it is forced to raise. Also it can be extended by the thermal ones when the tracks also face the sun.)

Mountain waves (standing waves in the atmosphere, of analogous form to the waves in the surface of a stream).

Cuadro-de-mandos-vuelo_sin_motor

Regulation

Each country has its regulation to obtain the license or permission necessary to pilot gliders. In addition, titles or diplomas recognized by the Aeronautical Federation exist intenacionalmente the International for certain profits.
C of silver, requires to have obtained
1) an in line straight distance of at least 50 kilometers
2) a gain of height of 1,000 meters and
3) a permanence in the air of at least 5 hours.
C of gold and diplomas, Thought to recognize more difficult flights.

 

 

 

 
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